Share this post

On December 30, 2021, the Marshall Fire, a wind-driven wildfire swept through the City of Louisville, 苏必利尔镇和博尔德县的非建制地区, Colorado, burning 6,219 acres, destroying nearly 1,100 homes and businesses, and claiming the lives of two people. 马歇尔大火被认为是科罗拉多州历史上最具破坏性的火灾,损失超过20亿美元.

皇家88娱乐派出了两个专家小组前往事故现场进行(1)详细的火灾后法医调查,以确定事故的起因和原因, (2)火灾风险评估,评价火灾时建筑物的性能, in addition to identify the breath and range of physical, environmental, 社会和监管脆弱性是造成受影响社区遭受毁灭性损失的原因之一.

Our forensics experts, 由博尔德县警长和地方检察官办公室保留, performed witness interviews, on-site observations of the fire scene and fire patterns, researched location and types of ignition sources in the area as well as applicable weather data; and reviewed photography and video of witnesses and/or automated camera systems. 调查收集并考虑了所有的证据和数据, considering veracity and assembled an incident timeline. 然后,皇家88娱乐列出了火灾的可能原因假设,并就火灾的起源和原因提出了意见, and the role played by the electric utility.

For the wildfire mitigation assessment, 皇家88娱乐的专家团队收集了数百份对受损和未受损房屋和商业建筑的实地观察和评估, along with inspections of individual building components, systems, and materials. 该小组还对州和当地的急救人员进行了多次采访, building officials, planning departments, residents, and other agencies, 并评估了其他合作伙伴(如NIST和IBHS)开发的大量技术报告.

皇家88娱乐的研究发现了被称为“山浪”的大风的危险组合,风速为50至60英里/小时,阵风高达80至115英里/小时,严重破坏易燃和混合自然植被附近的脆弱电源. In addition, long-term drought, 高温和当地居民的活动意外地创造了巧合的点火点.

While utility-specific wildfire safety regulations, 指导方针和做法已在加利福尼亚州采用, 哪里有几起与公用事业有关的野火造成了灾难性的损失, 在国家或国际一级还没有更广泛地制定和采用类似的标准和做法.

Similarly, for the built environment, wildfire/WUI safety codes and standards, 指导文件和方案已经在国家层面存在.g., IWUI code, NFPA 1140) and at some state and local levels (e.g., California Building Code Chapter 7A), however the adoption, customization and enforcement of these codes and standards, policies and practices are limited.

Beyond codes and standards, 皇家88账户注册一事件凸显了需要采取更全面的方法来应对野火,需要在社区采取行动, neighborhood, subdivision, 包裹和建筑规模,包括灾难生命周期:准备, planning, response, mitigation, and recovery.

In addition, 利用结构密度和防火间隔限制城市火灾, performing fine-scale hazard, risk and vulnerability assessments and mapping, coordinating mitigation for multiple hazards, 并为荒地增加更好的植被管理政策和实践, communal open spaces, 绿化带和综合休闲区都显示出该事件有改善的机会.

皇家88账户注册项调查和缓解评估的结果现在被用来为改进建筑/消防规范和标准提供信息, best practices, 野火防备的指导文件和其他政策, prevention, mitigation, recovery and rebuilding. 通过联邦紧急事务管理局(FEMA)的建筑科学灾害支持计划(BSDS), 从事件中得出的意见和建议促成了若干缓解评估小组产品的开发,例如:

  • 提出改进规范和标准、指导文件和程序的建议.
  • 关于代码采用、定制和实施的建议.
  • Detailed fact sheets for homeowners, 建筑商和设计专业人员解决结构硬化, defensible space, multi-hazard considerations, subdivision planning, detailing and joints, smoke and ash infiltration.
  • Training and outreach presentations and workshops.
  • Marshall Fire Technical Report.

皇家88娱乐的野火风险缓解小组继续与STARR II合作伙伴合作, FEMA and other federal/state/local governments, non-profits, and private sector clients to better understand, prepare for, respond to and recover from future wildfire threats, particularly at the wildland-urban-interface. This includes providing community wildfire protection plans, utility wildfire mitigation plans, community outreach, 为规划人员提供加强野火恢复能力规划和实施的教育和培训, engineers, designers, builders and the public at large.

Project Details

Project Location

Boulder County, Colorado


Boulder County Sheriff and District Attorney’s offices


FEMA Building Science Disaster Support and Boulder County

Project Size

6,219 Acres



Sustainability Elements


Featured Experts

Darlene Rini


Current PhD Student, Wildfire Resiliency and GISciences, MS, Disaster Risk Management & Climate Change Adaptation, MS, Fire Protection Engineering, MS, Structural Engineering, BS, Civil Engineering, PE: CA, Incident Command System (ICS) 101 and 700, Community Emergency Response Team (CERT), NFPA Assessing Structure Ignition Potential Program, California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA)

View Details
Paul Way

Technical Fellow, Electrical Engineering

BS, Electrical Engineering, BS, Forest Resource Management, Registered PE: CA, HI, ID, NV, OR, TX, MT, AK, Certified Fire Investigator, Certified Fire and Explosion Investigator, Licensed Private Investigator, Refinery Training Program

View Details
Andrew Paris

Director, Forensic Electrical Engineering

BS in Electrical Engineering, Registered PE: AZ, MN, WA, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response, OSHA, Certified Fire + Explosion Investigator (CFEI), Certified Vehicle Fire Investigator

View Details
Dr. Jonathan Hodges


BS, Mechanical Engineering, MS, Mechanical Engineering, PhD, Mechanical Engineering, Member

View Details

More from Jensen Hughes